Sixty years ago this month, the sinister dictator Fulgencio Batista abandoned Cuba to Fidel Castro and his guerrilla army. As anyone who has seen “The Godfather: Part Two” roughly knows, Batista gathered his cronies for a New Year’s Eve party, then declared that he was going to slink off in the night. The inner circle stampeded to the airfield and at 2:40 a.m. took off for Florida (Jacksonville, not Miami, which was considered too “pro-Fidel”) and, in the dictator’s case, the Dominican Republic.
Castro’s victory came as a complete surprise, even to him. It’s hard to remember today how the whole world was caught up in the excitement. Here was a scrappy bunch of idealistic young people who had managed to beat a professional army of 40,000 soldiers. Many Americans, even in the C.I.A., had been rooting for Castro.
Castro spent a week traveling across Cuba in a “caravan of victory.” He was interviewed by Ed Sullivan, who called him and his “barbudos” — the bearded ones — “in the real American tradition of George Washington.” Life magazine put Castro on the cover, calling the “bearded rebel scholar” a “dynamic boss” and “the liberator.”
The climax of this Fidelmania came with Castro’s visit to the United States in April. He spoke to a star-struck crowd of some 30,000 in Central Park. A female admirer gushed, “Fidel Castro is the best thing to happen to North American women since Rudolph Valentino.”
Sixty years later, it is melancholy to recall all that optimism gone awry. The love fest faded quickly; within a year, the United States and Fidel Castro had become mortal enemies, and would remain so for decades.
But Cuban history goes in 60-year cycles, it seems, creating symmetries that a novelist could not invent. An even more symbolic anniversary to recall now is the New Year’s Day exactly six decades before: It was on Jan. 1, 1899, that the Stars and Strips were raised over Havana after the Spanish-American War. Almost forgotten today, it was the formal beginning of the military occupation of Cuba that would shape its fate, and complicate the two countries’ relations, to this day.
Six months earlier, the United States had intervened in the bitter Cuban war of independence that had been dragging on since 1895, plucking its hard-won victory (in Cubans’ eyes) at the last moment. Cubans soon found that they had traded one colonial master for another. During the campaign, American officers had treated the ragtag, mixed-race local forces with contempt, despite their long resistance. A huge amount of resentment was created when the Americans refused to let Cuban soldiers attend the Spanish Army’s surrender ceremony in Santiago. Even their commanding general was turned away at the gates.
By the time Cuba gained official independence from the United States, on May 20, 1902, Cuba had been transformed into a vassal state, which many Americans hoped would one day be annexed into the Union. The occupiers had built some fine public works, fixing sewerage systems and paving roads — the Spanish had left the island a ruin — but they also gave American carpetbaggers free rein. Much of the best farmland in Cuba was soon owned by companies based in the United States, as were many of the railways, and nearly all the electrical and telephone systems. The Platt Amendment, added to a United States Army appropriation bill and incorporated in the Cuban Constitution in 1901, even gave Washington the right to intervene militarily in the island’s politics, which it did twice in following years, and gave the United States its permanent lease on the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
For the next six decades, Washington supported a string of vile presidents to protect its economic interests. The United States, a beacon of freedom and democracy for Latin Americans in the 19th century, was seen in the 20th as hypocritical at best, malevolent at worst.
It is no accident that Fidel Castro’s first victory speech, on the night of Jan. 1, 1959, was in Santiago, where he declared that the humiliations of the past would not be repeated. His speech in Havana a week later was in another symbolic spot: Camp Columbia, which had been built as a base for the United States Army. Today the camp is the site of Ciudad Escuela Libertad, Liberty School City, with its own Museum of Literacy.
The Cuban revolution of 1959 did not emerge from nowhere; it cannot be understood without acknowledging that first troubled New Year’s anniversary of 1899. Washington’s long support of the corrupt and murderous Batista in the 1950s was only the most notorious result. Castro and his compañeros wanted their island to be truly independent, which meant escaping the economic control of the United States — an aim that within months of victory put the two countries on their collision course.
Three years ago, it might have felt possible that 2019 would begin a fresh 60-year cycle and end the Cold War’s longest feud. The Obama-era thaw, including the president’s visit — not to mention the Rolling Stones concert — seemed to be ushering in a new era. Jan. 1, 2019, might have been a fine symbolic choice for the United States to end its antiquated trade embargo, in force since the Kennedy administration.
Such speculations sound like science fiction in this dark and myopic era of President Trump. But no way forward will ever emerge if we don’t acknowledge that the historical ties between the United States and Cuba have been far more complex over the past 120 years than hard-line Republicans care to recall — and that American responsibility for Cuba’s current state also runs deep.
Tony Perrottet is the author of “¡Cuba Libre!: Che, Fidel and the Improbable Revolution That Changed World History.”
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百万高手论坛资料 百度“【怎】【么】【回】【事】？”【哈】【新】【特】【博】【士】【扭】【头】【望】【向】【小】【爱】。 【小】【爱】【已】【经】【用】【不】【着】【回】【答】【他】【了】，【因】【为】【上】【空】【射】【线】【已】【经】【降】【下】，【即】【时】【远】【程】【投】【影】【正】【在】【生】【成】【对】【方】【的】【镜】【像】，【这】【是】【一】【个】【中】【年】【军】【官】，【军】【官】【面】【容】【威】【严】、【口】【气】【凌】【厉】： “【这】【里】【是】【圣】【辉】【联】【邦】【星】【际】【巡】【航】【舰】【队】，【前】【面】【的】【无】【名】【号】【鲲】【鹏】【星】【舰】【注】【意】，【请】【你】【们】【关】【闭】【引】【擎】，【主】【动】【靠】【近】【舰】【队】，【进】【港】【接】【受】【检】【查】，‘【哈】【新】【特】
【而】【那】【站】【在】【议】【事】【厅】【门】【外】【的】【长】【清】【掌】【门】，【听】【到】【身】【后】【传】【来】【沐】【雨】【苓】【的】【声】【音】，【立】【即】【转】【身】【朝】【后】【看】【了】【看】。 “【小】【师】【叔】，【鬼】【帝】【大】【人】” “【现】【在】【出】【来】【的】【弟】【子】，【已】【经】【有】【一】【百】【多】【名】【了】，【等】【再】【出】【来】【几】【十】【名】【试】【炼】【就】【结】【束】【了】。” 【长】【清】【掌】【门】【的】【话】【音】【才】【刚】【落】【下】，【沐】【雨】【苓】【便】【又】【看】【到】【几】【名】【弟】【子】【被】【传】【送】【出】【来】，【便】【也】【淡】【淡】【的】【点】【了】【点】【头】‘【嗯】’【了】【一】【声】。
【生】【活】，【就】【是】【在】【不】【断】【地】【重】【复】【着】【昨】【日】【的】【自】【己】，【并】【想】【尽】【一】【切】【办】【法】【超】【越】【昨】【日】，【将】【昨】【日】【变】【成】【今】【日】【的】【过】【程】。 【就】【算】【是】【无】【尽】【门】【中】【的】【修】【仙】【者】，【也】【是】【如】【此】。 【当】【人】【们】【都】【掌】【握】【了】【超】【凡】【的】【力】【量】【时】，【他】【们】【不】【一】【定】【会】【因】【此】【而】【到】【处】【打】【打】【杀】【杀】。 【他】【们】【只】【会】【发】【现】，【自】【己】【依】【旧】【是】【如】【此】【地】【无】【力】。 “【可】【可】，【你】【就】【答】【应】【我】【吧】。” “【余】【右】【啊】，【不】【是】【我】【不】百万高手论坛资料 百度“【多】【谢】【大】【长】【老】。”【金】【龙】【国】【特】【使】【行】【礼】，【虽】【然】【还】【没】【有】【拿】【到】【修】【复】【丹】【田】【的】【药】【物】，【但】【是】【性】【命】【保】【住】【了】，【以】【后】【在】【金】【龙】【国】【也】【算】【是】【性】【命】【无】【忧】【了】，【不】【过】【这】【样】【一】【来】，【他】【知】【道】【自】【己】【在】【想】【要】【弄】【到】【修】【复】【丹】【田】【的】【药】【物】【就】【难】【了】，【毕】【竟】【保】【住】【了】【他】【一】【条】【性】【命】，【起】【码】【不】【用】【担】【心】【自】【己】【会】【死】【了】，【这】【样】【一】【来】，【他】【也】【算】【是】【活】【了】【下】【来】，【怎】【么】【说】【也】【保】【住】【了】【性】【命】，【不】【然】【的】【话】，【他】【的】【那】
【一】【剑】【将】【杨】【万】【里】【斩】【首】【之】【后】，“【张】【家】【小】【姐】”【用】【黑】【色】【布】【袋】【将】【他】【的】【首】【级】【装】【了】【起】【来】，【然】【后】【打】【开】【后】【窗】【一】【跃】【而】【出】，【没】【入】【黑】【暗】【之】【中】。 【长】【乐】【帮】【众】【人】【还】【在】【外】【面】【高】【声】【吆】【喝】【着】【吃】【肉】【喝】【酒】，【谁】【曾】【想】【新】【郎】【已】【经】【魂】【归】【地】【府】，【杨】【万】【里】【一】【生】【作】【恶】【多】【端】，【终】【于】【落】【了】【如】【此】【下】【场】。 “【张】【家】【小】【姐】”【从】【长】【乐】【帮】【的】【围】【墙】【后】【面】【一】【跃】【而】【出】，【刚】【一】【落】【地】【就】【听】【见】【背】【后】【有】【人】【道】：
【为】【首】【的】【男】【子】【一】【身】【玄】【色】【的】【锦】【袍】，【身】【姿】【挺】【拔】，【步】【伐】【稳】【重】，【脸】【上】【带】【着】【淡】【淡】【的】【笑】【容】，【看】【起】【来】【颇】【为】【风】【姿】【翩】【翩】。 【他】【面】【容】【和】【齐】【凌】【有】【个】【六】【分】【像】，【刚】【一】【进】【来】，【目】【光】【就】【一】【直】【盯】【着】【齐】【凌】【打】【量】，【眸】【子】【中】【全】【是】【暗】【涌】。 【众】【人】【见】【完】【礼】【以】【后】，【直】【接】【进】【入】【了】【大】【殿】。 【大】【殿】【里】【面】【布】【置】【的】【非】【常】【用】【心】，【就】【连】【每】【个】【桌】【子】【上】【摆】【放】【的】【茶】【杯】【都】【是】【细】【心】【雕】【琢】【的】，【每】【个】【桌】
【艾】【伦】【的】【意】【思】【倒】【不】【是】【红】【主】，【黑】【主】【此】【刻】【还】【活】【着】，【而】【是】【在】【他】【出】【现】【之】【前】【还】【活】【着】。 【当】【然】【现】【在】【他】【们】【的】【的】【确】【确】【是】【死】【了】。 【在】【艾】【伦】【出】【现】【之】【前】，【他】【们】【实】【际】【上】【已】【经】【很】【虚】【弱】【了】，【只】【是】【在】【苟】【延】【残】【喘】【而】【已】。 【黑】【主】【还】【好】，【还】【有】【自】【己】【的】【意】【识】。 【而】【红】【主】，【艾】【伦】【从】【始】【至】【终】，【都】【没】【有】【见】【过】。 【虽】【然】【他】【身】【上】【有】【二】【者】【的】【力】【量】，【但】【是】【却】【又】【不】【同】，【现】【在】【的】
【这】【是】【个】【很】【漂】【亮】【的】【姑】【娘】，【眉】【眼】【之】【间】【还】【有】【几】【分】【英】【气】，【在】【这】【深】【宫】【中】【着】【实】【难】【得】，【穿】【着】【浅】【碧】【色】【的】【长】【裙】，【看】【着】【位】【份】【也】【不】【高】【的】【样】【子】，【阿】【宝】【想】【起】【那】【天】【在】【拱】【门】【那】【里】【见】【到】【的】【女】【子】。 【杜】【若】【在】【她】【身】【边】【低】【声】【道】：“【这】【是】【倚】【竹】【宫】【的】【杜】【美】【人】。” 【阿】【宝】【盯】【着】【她】，【没】【出】【声】。【不】【知】【道】【为】【什】【么】，【她】【总】【觉】【得】【这】【姑】【娘】【莫】【名】【地】【熟】【悉】。 【杜】【美】【人】【似】【乎】【被】【盯】【得】【有】【些】【不】